Hi, my name is Andy Johnson and I am a fifth year senior majoring in History, and minoring in Psychology in the College of Education. I am from Lake Forest, Illinois which is about 25 miles north of Chicago. I love all sports, and I am a huge fan of all Chicago teams, especially the Cubs, the Bulls and Da Bears. I am a catcher for the MSU baseball team and I hope to coach one day. We won the Big ten last year for the first time in 32 years which was very exciting to be apart of. Outside of sports I am a big movie buff, and I enjoy woodworking. My grandfather was in the Navy for 32 years and when he retired he became a finished furniture maker. He has a 1000 sq ft wood shop in his back yard and he only lives a few miles down the road from
253513_1951833756659_1267080468_32148036_2062774_a.jpgme so I grew up learning and building things with him. I have a deep interest in American history, in particular the Civil War. One day I hope to visit all the historic sites involved in the Civil War. My mother has been a teacher for 31 years and she is who inspired me to become an educator.


I am very excited and yet a little nervous about teaching. I never saw myself as a business type person that sits in a cubicle all day on the phone or computer. I like to be active and challenged and teaching I know will be challenging. It will not be easy, I know this but I will have to learn from my mistakes. As a teacher I will probably be learning more from my students than they are from me. But that is ok because we are in this together and hopefully I can pass some of my knowledge on to them to better help them in their futures.



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September 11, 2001 Lesson Plan:

5 min: Begin with a class discussion about 9/11 and gauge what students know and understand about what happened on that day and the reaosons for why it happened.

15 min: Show a brief presentation with pictures and video of what happened that day and have students write a reflection about what they feel when they see these images.

15 min: Show brief powerpoint on the ideas of nationalism and terrorism and look at what these two words mean and how they impcated the events of 9/11. Show students both sides, so that students can get a understanding of why this happened and the reasons that people would do these kinds of things. It will allow students to also get a better perspective and insight into other cultures.

10 min: Look at the outcome of the 9/11 attacks not only at home but the effect it had with our relations with other countries as well, most notably the middle east. Look at how our nation came together after theattacks and how it effected international policy as well.

5 min: have class discussion and try and answer any questions that students may have about 9/11. Have students for homework go home and talk with either an older sibling or parent about 9/11 and what there thoughts are. Students will then write a brief summary about the attacks and if their ideas have changed.


Unit Planning: Colleague Correspondence

I talked with my colleague correspondent about unit plans and she said that she does not really use one anymore. She had been teaching in the same school for 31 years and pretty much the same classes so for her one is not needed anymore. She did not recommend that young teachers necessarily take that approach but said that she felt unit planning for young teachers is necessary and provides good structure to a classroom and topic. Though She does not use a unit plan she does make it a point to review the state and national standards every year before the school year starts to look for any changes so she covers all the standards. I think she had a good point that it is smart for young teachers to follow unit plans and basic models for lesson plans because they do provide us guidance in the classroom and for our students. What I found most interesting was that she talked a lot about standards and how administrators really press teachers to follow them so students will score well on standardized state tests during the year. Though she does not necessarily agree with teaching to the tests many schools want their teachers to do just that.
Andy J



Halloween Lecture

The History of Halloween


http://www.history.com/topics/halloween/videos#halloweens-origins

The Celtics
•2000 years ago
•Present Day Ireland, UK, Northern France
•November 1, start of a new year
–End of summer and harvest
-Beginning of long dark winters often associated with death.
-The night before the New Year the boundary between the living world and the dead became blurred
•Festival of Samhain (Sow-in)
–October 31
•Ghosts and the dead returned to earth
•Easier for priests to make predictions about the future.

Celtics Cont..
• Dependent upon the Natural world
–Prophecies provided source of comfort and direction going into long dark winter
•Built large bonfires and burned crops
•Dressed up in animal skins and animal heads
•Told each other’s fortunes

Roman Empire
•By 43 AD ruled most of the Celtic lands and did so for 400 yrs.
•Pope Gregory III began all saints day on November 1
–Commemorate saints and martyrs of the church
-Celebrated with bonfires, parades, and dressing up in costumes as saints, angels, and devils.

•All saints day also become known as All- hallows day
–Night before became known as all- hallows eve

Halloween to America..
•Limited because of protestant beliefs
–Autumn celebrations
•Ireland Potato famine 1846
•Irish Immigrants to America
-Brought over traditions
–Popularized Halloween
-People in America began dressing up in costumes and going house-to-house asking for food r money (trick or treating)
•Became a community centered holiday a way for the community to come together
- In a way people would give kids small candies so they would not get tricks played on them.

Trick or Treat….
•All souls day Parade’s
-In England
- Poor people would beg for food
•Soul Cake’s
-Little pastries
–Received in a Promise to pray for people’s dead relatives
•“going-a-souling”
-What it began being referred too
-Taken up by children in the neighborhoods to go to neighbor’s houses for food and money

•Dressed up in costumes so ghosts would not recognize them
•Place food outside houses to appease spirits so they wouldn’t come inside

Superstitions
•Witches turned into black cats to avoid detection- Middle Ages
-People try to avoid crossing paths with black cats because it is bad luck
•Done walk under ladders because it’s bad luck- Egyptians (triangle was a sacred shape)
-Some believe walking under a ladder is bad luck
• Matchmaking, women hoped to find husbands
-Used to be large part of what Halloween was about

Legends….
If a young woman ate a sugary concoction made out of walnuts, hazelnuts and nutmeg before bed on Halloween night she would dream about her future husband. Young women tossed apple-peels over their shoulders, hoping that the peels would fall on the floor in the shape of their future husbands' initials; tried to learn about their futures by peering at egg yolks floating in a bowl of water; and stood in front of mirrors in darkened rooms, holding candles and looking over their shoulders for their husbands' faces. At some Halloween parties, the first guest to find a burr on a chestnut-hunt would be the first to marry; at others, the first successful apple-bobber would be the first down the aisle.

Jack- O - Lanterns
•Irish folktale “Stingy Jack”
•Tricked the Devil multiple times but wasn’t let into either heaven or hell
-Invited the devil for a drink but true to his name to get out of paying tricked the devil to turn into a coin but didn’t use it and put the coin next to a silver cross so the devil couldn’t turn back. Eventually freed the devil under the conditions that he would not bother jack for one year and if he died he would not claim his soul.
-The next year jack tricked the devil again to climb a tree and pick a piece of fruit. Jack carved a cross in the tree so the devil could not come down. He had devil promise him he would not bother jack for 10 years.
-Jack died but God didn’t want such an unsavory figure in heaven and the devil upset by the tricks would not claim his soul. He sent Jack away with one burning coal to light the way Jack put the coal in a carved up turnip and began roaming the earth.

•Ireland and Scotland.
- In England they used large beets
- When immigrants came over to the United States they found pumpkins a large native fruit they were perfect to make jack- o- lanterns.
•Carved Jack -o- lanterns to keep “stingy jack” and evil spirits away.
-Carved potatoes and turnips and put them in windows or near doors.

http://www.novareinna.com/festive/jack.html





Sample Chapter 3 Study Guide
Name:
Date:


Planning, Managing, and Motivating:
Question & Note Sheet


1) What is a lesson plan? And explain each of the eight components that go into making a lesson plan?










2) Why is reflection important? What are the differences between the three types of reflection? (Reflection-in-Action, Reflection-on-Action, Reflection-for-Action)









3) Why is motivation important for teaching students?




4) What is self-efficacy and locus of control?
















5) What are the differences between classroom management and Discipline? Are both of these needed to be an effective teacher?


















6) Summarize each of the approaches to classroom management and pick which one you agree with the most.


Behaviorism:





Canter’s assertive Discipline Model:




The Dreikurs/ Albert Model





Ginott’s Model:





Glasser’s Model:





Jone’s Model:





Kounin’s Model:









Lecture Outline
A Road to Secession

  1. Fugitive Slave Act (1850)
-Part of the Compromise of 1850
        • California admitted as a free state while allowing slavery in lands west of Texas (Utah & New Mexico)

-Required all runaway slaves be returned
        • Abolitionists called it the “bloodhound law”
-Any US marshal that did not arrest a runaway fine was liable to pay a fine.
-People that helped escaped slaves could be imprisoned and or fined
-Slaves could not get a jury to defend them all slave masters had to do was say that they were his slave. (Any suspected slaves could be taken, resulted in many free blacks being taken as slaves)

  1. Uncle Toms Cabin (1852)
-Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
-Stowe was an abolitionist (Teacher at a girls academy in Connecticut)
- Showed the evils of slavery
- A best seller at the time
        • 2nd best selling book of the century behind the Bible
-Impacted the way northerners saw and viewed slavery
-Angered many Southerners

  1. Kansas- Nebraska Act (1854)
-Repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820
        • Prohibited slavery in former Louisiana territory (Great Plains) North of the 36 30 parallel except in the proposed state of Missouri. Missouri a slave state Maine a free state.
-Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
-Popular sovereignty, voters to decide if states would be free or slave
-Stephen Douglas Proposed it
-By 1856 violence had broken out I Kansas over voting “Bleeding Kansas”
        • Pro vs. Anti slavery
Pro- Slavery Congressman Preston Brooks (SC) attacked Charles Sumner (Mass) on the US Senate Floor and beat him with his cane. (1856)
        • Spent 3 years in recovery before returning to senate

  1. Dred Scott Decision (1857)
-Ruled on by US Supreme Court
-Slave that followed his owner in free states
-Decided salves were not protected by the constitution and could never be US citizens
-So he could not sue because he was not a citizen
-He was property to his owner (slaves considered property not people)

  1. John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry (1859)
-Radical Abolitionist
-Led a group of 17 people (5 black) to raid the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA.
- Wanted to start a slave uprising
-Was not successful and he was hanged for treason
-Created lots of publicity (grew the abolitionist movement)

  1. Lincoln elected President (1860)
-Had moderate views on slavery
-Ran on platform that Slavery would not be expanded
-Last straw before South Carolina succeeded



State
Date of Secession
South Carolina
December 20, 1860
Mississippi
January 9, 1861
Florida
January 10, 1861
Alabama
January 11, 1861
Georgia
January 19, 1861
Louisiana
January 26, 1861
Texas
February 1, 1861
Virginia
April 17, 1861
Arkansas
May 6, 1861
North Carolina
May 20, 1861
Tennessee
June 8, 1861


The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 was the final straw for many southerners. In all 11 states seceded from the Union. Four of these (Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee) did not secede until after the Battle of Fort Sumter that occurred on April 12, 1861. Five additional states were Border Slave States that did not secede from the Union: Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland and Delaware.



Portland Middle School Lesson Plan
CLASS: 8th Grade American History
DATE: Monday, October 10, 2011
UNIT: The Constitution and its Amendments
ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: What will my students be able to do or understand by the end of class?
1) SSU how an amendment are created and passed
2) SSU what the bill of rights are and why they are important
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What 1-2 major themes/ideas do I want to explore with students in this unit?
1) Why do we have a Bill of Rights and what do they do?


2) How are amendments important to our changing society?
MICHIGAN HSCE:Which three state standards does my plan address?
1) U3.3.5
2) U3.3.6


HOOK/INITIATION: What will you do to get the students invested in the lesson?
Project the first ten amendments (Bill of Rights) on the board in the front of the room and ask students to write down, “ which amendment do you think is most important” “why is this amendment so important?” Then have a class discussion about the amendments students chose and why they are important to have.
TEACHER ACTIVITIES: How will I convey the knowledge/skills of the lesson to help my students understand?
Bring the class together and lecture about amendments and what it takes to pass an amendment. So students get and idea that for an amendment to pass it needs to be approved by a 2/3 vote and then a ¾ vote. It is not an easy process. We will also go over each of the 10 amendments in the bill of rights and then talk about some of the more important amendments that have had significant effect on our nations history.
STUDENT ACTIVITIES What will the students do to demonstrate their understanding?
Students will be divided into 10 groups each being assigned one of the ten amendments that make up the Bill of rights. Each group will have to research their amendment and present them to the class sharing what each means and the significance each one has. It is important that students do their own research and teach their peers about what they mean and represent.
CLOSURE/SHARE BACK: How will the students share/interpret knowledge for others in the class?
Students will share their knowledge with others in the class through presenting their amendments and what freedoms each grant us

TICKET OUT THE DOOR: The ticket out the door will be a paragraph on why the bill of rights was necessary to pass and what does it do for us.
ANNOUNCEMENTS:
Constitution Test next Wednesday
HOMEWORK:
Create a proposal for the 28th amendment and explain why it should be passed.



Primary Source and Questioning Strategies
Micro Teaching #5

external image placeholder?w=434&h=218

http://geology.com/articles/satellite-photo-earth-at-night.shtml


Describe what you see?

What is the first thing that you notice?

What is this photo showing?

What does this photo represent?

What do the lights represent?

Where are the lights located?

Why are they located where they are?

Are there any similarities in this picture?

How does this photo represent consumption?

What can this tell us bout the world?

What does this photo say about population?

Formulate a conclusion from this photo?




Concept Attainment Example
Teaching the Concept of Maps
To help students understand the concept of maps in a geography class I would first have an informal class discussion with the entire class about what a map is and what functions they have. What maps look like? I will write on the board what kids say and compile a list of what all they believe makes a map. Then create a class definition of what they believe a map is. Out of this lesson I want students to walk away with an understanding of what a map is and the basic components of maps? What they are used for? What are the benefits and problems with using maps? And how to read and distinguish between different types of maps. Next I will divide the class in small groups so about five students and give each group a set of maps to look at. I want them to write down what they see. After about ten minutes of so we will come together as a class again and look to see if our definition of a map and what it looks like has changed at all? We will add and take away things if necessary to our class list. This discussion will go into the different types of maps and what they are used for and also look at the basic components that make up a map so the legend, compass, and basic features like that. I want them to take way a basic understanding of how maps are made? What features go into just about any map? Then the students will g back into their groups and talk about any problems they see with the maps or issues that people have with using maps. I want students to pick one of the maps and tell why that map may not be as good as others. In this I want students to look at how maps distort land sizes and distances between places. When we come together as a class again I will show so different maps on the projector and ask students why this image either is not a map or not a good map to use. I want students to be able to take their conception of what a map is and really thin k about it and see why these images do not fit that description. I want students to be able to distinguish between different types of maps and what makes a good map and a bad one. What are the benefits and downfalls of maps? I want to engage students to critically think and apply their concept of maps and engage themselves so they develop a true understanding of the concept.


Sample Five Day Unit

Unit Title: The Age of Enlightenment
Day 1:
Topic: Introduction


Objectives:
Event: Question session to understand student’s prior knowledge and perceptions about the age of enlightenment. Then have students write a short paragraph about what they know about 18th century Europe and what was going on at that time in European history. This will be used again later in the lesson to gauge what students have learned. Begin lecture on the Age of Enlightenment and define what it is for the students. Provide them with basic background knowledge on the subject.
Assessment: Diagnostic and learning of the student’s prior knowledge on the subject.

Day 2:
Topic: Age of Enlightenment
Objective:
Event: Continue lecture form previous day but go into greater detail on the of the age of enlightenment and the reasons behind it. Introduce students to what society was like at this time in history and also look at the previous centuries. Understand the changing thought in European society and understand the concept of “reason”. Introduce some of the key thinkers during the enlightenment time period.
Assessment: Have students write a brief paragraph about what the age of enlightenment was and the ideas behind it.

Day 3:
Topic: Key thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment


Objective:
Event: Give brief overview lecture on Baron de Montesquieu, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean- Jacques Rousseau and explain their main ideas and introduce some of their main works.
Assessment: Have the students do reading on one of the four philosophers that I assign them

Day 4:


Topic: Baron de Montesquieu, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean- Jacques Rousseau

Objective:
Event: Have students in pairs and assign each pair one of these four philosophers. Have Information and primary sources about these people and samples of their work. Let students research their person and at the end of class give a brief presentation on who their philosopher is and brief overview of their work.
Assessment:
Students will become experts on their philosopher and observe and listen to their speeches and what they have learned about each one’s ideas and beliefs.

Day 5:
Topic: Effects of the age of Enlightenment
Objective:
Event: Have class discussion about the four philosophers that we studied and have a guided discussion with the class about each of their ideas and look at the impact these ideas had on European society. Look at the reasons behind why this age came about.
Assessment:
Have students write a brief one page response on the age of enlightenment highlighting when it occurred, the reasons it occurred, what came out of it, and the effects it had on European society for the future.




Elective Course Description
The Civil War: A Soldiers Perspective

Course Description:
This Course would be created for an 11th grade high school classroom. While the Civil war is covered in every United States history class the importance of this conflict to American History is far greater than the one or two weeks of the semester that is allowed. By designating a whole class on the Civil War, I look to teach not so much the battles and major figures in the war but have students look at the war from the perspective of the soldiers themselves. Too many times students just learn certain names of places and don’t truly understand the reasons the war was being fought or understand nothing about the people that are actually fighting the war.
In this class I strive to present both sides of the war. Teach from the perspectives of the North and South. This is the bloodiest conflict in American history and the only one where you had brothers fighting against each other. Families on different sides trying to kill their fellow brother and man for what? Are these people really that different after all? I want students to explore these questions and find reasons for the war and learn about society and its ideologies during this time in American History. Understand what these soldiers had to go through and try to see what these people were fighting for; was it just slavery or something entirely else?

Unit Description:

Secession:
I will pose the question to the students if America at this time was a slave society? Or a society of Slaves? I think it is important for students to understand the importance of slavery and with this will go into talking about such things as the Missouri compromise and try to lay out the foundation for why the South moved towards secession form the Union. In this I will also talk about Jon Brown and other important events. Students will look at and analyze primary documents from both Sides. So newspaper articles from say South Carolina and also New York. I want students to hear what both sides are saying on this issue to try and find the heart of the conflict.

The North (Union Army):
This will involve students looking at personal letters and diaries of soldiers in the Union army. I want them to read and understand what these soldiers had to go through for war is not easy. Also I think it is important for students to read what the soldiers believed they are fighting for and if these reasons match up with what they believed before. Was everyone fighting in the North to end slavery? Also in this unit I think it is very important to also analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the North and also look at Northern society, so again at newspapers and important political figures, to see what they are saying to the public and what public belief was at this time.


The South (Confederate Army):
Like the North I will do something very similar with the South and the Confederate army. I want students to read letters and diaries from the Confederate soldiers to gain an understanding of what these people are fighting for. Is there anything different about their experience from the experience of Union soldiers and what is it? Do all Southerners own slaves or are supportive of slavery? These are the questions I want students to be able to answer after looking at these primary documents. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the South and what ultimately resulted in their loss to the Union army.

African American Soldiers:
Another important aspect of the war is the African American Experience. This is the first war in America where we had complete African American regiments fighting alongside white soldiers. What gains did this war have for African Americans and what did it do for their future in this country? I want students to not only read letters form African American soldiers to hear what they had to go through but also I want students to understand why these soldiers felt so strongly about fighting for the cause. Are their reasons for fighting the war different form other soldiers or the same? These are questions that I want students to explore. With this unit I will also have students watch the film Glory.


Bibliography:

Texts:
- For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War, James McPherson

-This Republic of Suffering: Death and The American Civil War, Drew Gilpin Faust

-The Negro’s Civil War: How American Blacks Felt and Acted During the War for the Union, James McPherson.

Films:
-
The Civil War, Ken Burns
-
Glory, Edward Zwick

I wanted to use these texts because they tell the story from all sides. Most of these books are made up of soldier’s letters and diaries form the war. They give first hand accounts of what happened and what it was like to fight in the war. I like that it does not paint a very beautiful picture but shows the realities of fighting and death. It allows students t look into the minds of the soldiers and learn what they were thinking and what the believed was going on. These two films I think will be good aids in teaching about the conflict. The ken Burns documentary has very god pictures and visuals that will help to stimulate students minds and help them to visualize what they are reading and learning about. Glory is a good video I think to watch when talking about the African American experience for it shows what they had to go through but also the passion they expressed for freedom.
With these sources I will also have lots of primary documents to go with them as well. Newspapers from that time from both the North and South as well as speeches from Abraham Lincoln, Robert E Lee, and many other important figures of this day as well as diaries and letter from soldiers and everyday people. This whole course is designed around primary documents and peering into the minds and thoughts of people from this time in History.




Assessment:
I will use many different forms to Asses the students in my class throughout the course. Each unit will have a some quizzes and a test but with them each until will have a primary document activity where I have students analyze a set of primary documents and then write a short paper that uses the primary document to either support of weaken their argument. Once both the North and South are covered I will have a debate where I dived the class inot the North and South and have them argue the points each side had for the war. This will make students use primary documents and also understand the central issues. After watching the movie Glory I will have students write a opinion paper on the movie and also if the film correctly reflected the true experience of African Americans in the civil war? These are a bunch of the ways I will Asses my students when taking this course.




Andy Johnson
TE 408

Bill of Rights Lesson Plan (Cooperative Learning)
Length: 55 min

Summary: the purpose of this lesson is to introduce and examine the Bill of Rights.

Objectives: By the end of this lesson, students will be able to
o Define the Bill of Rights
o Be able to identify and explain each amendment
o Understand why these amendments were included in the Constitution.

Enduring Understanding:
Students will understand the structure and function of the United States government established by the Constitution.


Essential Questions:
o What are the rights, liberties, and responsibilities of citizens?
o What is the Bill of Rights?
o Why was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?

Procedure:

1. (10 min) Write “Bill of Rights” on the board and ask the class for definitions. Explain to the class that the Bill of Rights is the 1st 10 amendments made to the Constitution. Make sure students understand that an amendment is a change to the Constitution. Review Article 5 of the Constitution in which the process of constitutional amendments is discussed. Note that in the 200-plus years since the writing of this document, only 27 amendments have been made. Also, explain that these first 10 are our guarantees or certain rights as people. Some of these rights protect those accused of a crime; others rights protect the minority: each of the amendments included in the Bill of Rights help to ensure a more democratic society.

2. (35 minutes) Divide the class into five groups, each group containing five students. After in these groups, one member from each group will come and pick two pieces of paper out of a hat. Each piece of paper will have one of the ten amendments that make up the Bill of Rights. So each group will have two amendments. The students will then as a group research their two amendments and have to teach their amendments to others in the class. After about 20 minutes break up the groups and place every student with one person form each group. So that every group of five has all ten amendments covered. The students will then each teach the other students about the two amendments they had researched. Each student will have a worksheet with all ten amendments and have to complete it entirely.

3. (10 min) then come together as a class and go over each of the ten amendments and see what the students learned about each of them. Lead a class discussion as to why these amendments are important. For homework each student will write one page on which amendment they believe to be most important and why.


Assessment:
Students the next day when they walk in the door will receive a worksheet with examples of each amendment and have to fill out the worksheet with the proper amendments.


Resources:
Textbook
Computers
Worksheets (Below)
Slips of paper




Name:

Bill of Rights (Amendments 1-10)

Amendments
Protection
Description
Example
1st Amendment



2nd Amendment



3rd Amendment



4th Amendment



5th Amendment



6th Amendment



7th Amendment



8th Amendment



9th Amendment



10th Amendment







Name:

Bill of Rights Examples

Directions: Read each situation below carefully. Next name the Amendment from the Bill of Rights that is being exercised in each of the following situations in the space provided:

1. Andrew was stopped by a police officer on his way home from school. The police officer wanted to search Andrews’s backpack because he heard a teenage boy had just robbed the candy store on the corner. Andrew said to the officer, “Do you have a warrant?” The officer said, “no.” Andrew informed the officer that he could not search his bag because it violated his rights.


2. Sarah arrived home one evening to find a member of the United States navy sitting at the dining room table eating dinner with her parents. Sarah quickly turned to her parents and said, “Why is there a military person in our home?” Sarah’s parents said, “We were told we had to house this soldier.” Sarah quickly kicked the soldier out and said to him, “Read the Bill of Rights.” _



3. John is upset over the current curfew effecting teenagers throughout East Lansing. John decided that he was going to collect as many signatures as he could on a petition and present it to the city government’s office._


4. Jose, a recent immigrant to the United States, was driving around the city of Los Angeles and noticed that there were churches and temples from several different religions located throughout the city. He was amazed at the fact that people in the United States could practice and worship any religion of their choice._



5. On January 10, 2002, Jerry was arrested for trespassing on his neighbor’s property. When he appeared before the judge to set his trial date, the judge told him his trial would take place on January 24, 2006. Jerry immediately informed the judge that this date was unacceptable._


6. Nowhere in the Constitution does it talk about what part of the federal government is in charge of education. Today each individual state controls and sets the standards for their state’s educational system.


7. Mary was caught littering in the park one day after school. When she went to trial, the jury found her guilty since there was a ton of evidence showing her guilt. The judge decided to give Mary a special sentence. He wanted Mary to walk from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. Along her journey across the country; Mary had to fill up 1 million bags of trash with litter she found along the roads. Mary quickly informed the judge she did not have to fulfill this sentence.


8. Stephanie was told that she could not wear her favorite shirt anymore. Instead she had to wear shirts that were only approved by the federal clothing agency. Stephanie knew that this rule could not possibly be true because she learned about the Bill of Rights in school._


9. Eli wrote a nice lengthy article for the Daily News describing the changes students would like to see at Roosevelt Middle School. The principal tried to stop Eli’s article from being published in the local newspaper, but she was unsuccessful.


10. Nancy visited one of her elderly neighbors and noticed that she had a gun locked away in one of her cabinets. During the visit, Nancy turned to her neighbor and asked, “Why do you have a gun in your house?” Her neighbor simply said, “I am exercising my right to own a gun legally.”_